1. Phytochemical Studies on Selected Gymnema Species from Kerala
Satheesh K, Sulaiman C.T, Indira Balachandran
Phytochemical studies were carried out in four Gymnema species such as Gymnema sylvestre, Gymnema hirsutum, Gymnema elegans and Gymnema khandalense collected from Kerala. Preliminary chemical tests were conducted using various qualitative analyses. Phenolics, flavonoids and alkaloids were found as major class of compounds in all the species. Total phenolics content (TPC) was determined by Folin Ciocalteu Spectrophotometric method and was expressed as mg Equivalent of Gallic acid. Total flavonoid content (TFC) was also calculated by aluminium chloride colorimetric method and was expressed as mg equivalent of Quercetin. Among the different parts, roots showed maximum phenolics for all the four species. The highest TPC were found in the root of G. khandalense (3.175 mg E Ga) and the least TPC was observed in leaves of G. elegans (0.84 mg E Ga). Flavonoid to phenolic ratio (F/P) was also calculated for the evaluation of specificity of flavonoids farther than phenolics.
2. Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Rudraksha) Leaves
Devesh Tewari, Pranay Kumar, Pankaj Sharma
Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Rudraksha) is a broad leaved tree, belonging to family Elaeocarpaceae found in tropical & subtropical areas. Traditionally rudraksha is used for the treatment of various ailments like stress, anxiety, depression, nerve pain, epilepsy migraine and lack of concentration etc. In India the tree occupies the regions ranging from the Gangetic plains to the foothills of the great Himalaya. The investigation was carried out to study the pharmacognostical characteristics of the plant material. Rudraksha is a large evergreen, drought tolerant, perennial broad leaved tree; the stem is cylindrical with a dirty white and coarse textured bark. Morphology of the entire plant has been studied with pharmacognostical, & histological parameters which can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species/varieties.
3. Phytochemical Analysis and Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of Fruit Extracts ofTerminalia racemosa
Bhatnagar S, Panda P, Behera DR
Fruit powder was subjected to serial solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus starting from hexane to methanol. All the five extracts namely hexane, DCM, chloroform, acetone and methanol were subjected to cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp assay at doses of 20, 50,100 and 200µg/ml, Dose dependent activity was recorded and highest activity was exhibited by DCM extract(100% mortality) followed by chloroform extract, which resulted in the mortality of 83% of brine shrimp larvae at the dose of 200µg/ml. TLC based antioxidant assessment revealed a number of antioxidant bands in all the extracts with maximum number of bands in DCM extract. Thus, from both the assays it can be concluded that DCM extract was the most potent fruit extract of Terminalia racemosa. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannin, saponin and terpenoids.
4. Absorption, Distribution and Excretion of [14C]-S-equol in the Rat and Cynomolgus Monkey
Schwen RJ, Henry KT, Jackson RL
S-equol is a potent, selective estrogen receptor β agonist that is currently in development for various nutritional and therapeutic uses. S-equol is produced in the gut by the microbial reduction of daidzein, a chemical found in soy protein. Previously, we reported the similarities in drug metabolites in the rat, monkey and man. The present study investigated the absorption, tissue distribution and routes of excretion of orally-dosed [14C]-S-equol in the rat and cynomolgus monkey to support their use in toxicology studies. Radiolabeled [14C]-S-equol was administered as a single oral dose to male Sprague-Dawley rats (2 mg/kg) and male cynomologus monkeys (1 mg/kg). Total collections of urine, feces, cage rinse, and expired air were obtained in continuous 12 and 24 h intervals through 96 h after dosing. Plasma and tissue samples were collected at various timepoints to determine the pharmacokinetics of radiolabel in plasma and clearance of all drug-related materials from tissues.
5. Comparative Qualitative Analysis of the Phytochemical Load of Water, Methanol, Ethyl Acetate and Hexane Extracts of Six Selected Medicinal Plants
Engwa Azeh Godwill, Nnamdi Paul, Nnadi Jacinta Chidubem, Offor Titus Innocent, Eze Blessing Chinenye
The effectiveness of herbal medicine based on the paradigm of synergicity may depend on the phytochemical load of the plant. However, the effectiveness of the extraction method used by herbal practitioners who commonly macerate plants in water or dry gins or boil in water to prepare their treatment still remains unclear. To ascertain the effectiveness of these local practices, the phytochemical load of water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane solvent extraction methods were evaluated and compared for six plants locally used for the folk medicine. The plants were screened for tannins, flavonoid, cardiac glycosides, phenolics, steroids, terpenes, saponin, carbohydrates, phlobatannins and alkaloids. All 10 phytochemicals screened were presents for various solvent extractions methods. The most effective extraction methods were water and methanol with the highest phytochemical load for all six selected phytochemicals investigated. All 10 phytochemical were identified for water and methanol extracts of Psidium guajava, Vitex doniana and Kola acuminata. Hexane extraction showed the lowest phytochemical load. These results suggest that the local practices of herbal practitioners using water and dry gin (an alcohol) for the preparation of their treatments are effective in extracting necessary phytochemicals and are in conformity with basic scientific methods of extraction. However, treatments prepared with dry gin, an alcohol which is known to have adverse effect in the body may not be advisable for patients to consume and therefore water extraction will be ideal for such practices.
6. Studies on Antivenom Activity of Aristolochia indica Plant Extract Against Red Scorpion Venom by in Vivo and in Vitro Methods.
Attarde S. S, Apte K. G
Objective: Mesobuthus tumulus is the most lethal among all poisonous species of scorpion. Aristolochia indica is one of the plants which have long been used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of poisoning by animal bites. Hence the study was planned to evaluate the ethanolic extract of Aristolochia indica for the treatment of Mesobuthus tamulus envenoming. Materials and Methods: Calculation of LD99 of Mesobuthus tamulus venom was done using Turner’s method. Acute toxicity and Neutralization of the lethal venom effect of Mesobuthus tamulus venom by plant extract at the dose of 1gm/kg and 2gm/kg in vivo was seen. Results: The LD99 of Mesobuthus tamulus venom from this study was determined to be 22.6μg/gm. In the acute toxicity and in vivo neutralization study plant extract at the dose of 1gm/kg and 2gm/Kg resulted in mean survival of 59mins and 51mins respectively. Neutralization of the lethal venom effect by plant extract at the dose of 1gm/kg and 2gm/kg by Alam and Gome’s method showed mean survival of 88 mins and 75 mins respectively. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Aristolochia indica has protective effect against the Red Scorpion Venom and shows 50% survival benefits in mice.
7. Phytochemical Examination of Corchorus capsularis Roots
D. Ramadevi, S. Ganapaty
From root extract of Corchorus capsularis, a rare Cardiac glycosides like corchoroside-A and cannogenol, Steroids like β-sitosterol and stigmasterol 3-O-β-D-glucoside, Flavonoids like quercetin, Terpenoids like betulinic acid and oleanolic acid were reported from this plant.
8. Effect of Spacial and Temporal Variations in Cellular Characters and Chemical Contents in Pseudarthria viscida (L.)W. & Arn. – A Medicinal Plant
Jayanthy A., Prakash Kumar U., A. B. Remashree
Pseudartria viscida, a well known medicinal plant is widely used for the management of many diseases and ailments. Root of this plant is an important ingredient in more than 68 ayurvedic formulations. The present study deals with the existing major variation in anatomical, physico-chemical and phytochemical characters in P.viscida due to change in season and region. Phytochemical changes due to various seasons and different regions were also studied by performing HPTLC densitometric quantification of lupeol in methanol extract of roots. Microscopic variation observed in the quantity of cell inclusions such as starch and tannin, number of phloem fibers, and wall thickness of lignified cells. Physico-chemical parameters and HPTLC densitometric quantification also showed variation in the quantity of chemical constituents according to season and place of collection.
9. Antibacterial and Antifungal Potential of the Ethanolic Extract of Praxelis clematidea R.M. King & Robinson
Oliveira-Filho A. A., Fernandes H. M. B., Sousa J. P. , Maia G. L. A. , Silva D.F., Barbosa-Filho J. M. , Oliveira T. L., Lima E. O., Pêsoa, H.L.F
Praxelis clematidea R.M. King & Robinson belongs to the family Asteraceae. Plants from this family have been extensively studied for the development of new drugs and insecticides. Based on this information, the ethanolic extract of Praxelis clematidea was evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity. Six bacterial strains and six fungal strains were used in the study for activities. Microdilution method was used for antibacterial and antifungal assay of the ethanolic extract. The results were also compared with the standard drug, Chloramphenicol (100 µg/mL) and Nistatin (100 UI/mL). The obtained results showed activity of the extract ethanolic against Candida species, in particular against Candida albicans, which highlights the immense antifungal potential of this plant species
10. A Review on Hepatotoxicity of Phytomedicines
Velayutham Ravichandiran, Patil Vishal Satish
Herbal hepatotoxicity is increasingly recognized as herbal medicines become more popular in industrialized societies. Some herbal products may potentially benefit people with liver disease; however, these benefits remain generally unproved in humans, and a greater awareness of potential adverse effects is required. Herbal use is often not disclosed, and this may result in a diagnostic delay and perpetuation or exacerbation of liver injury. Female gender may predispose to hepatotoxicity, and concomitant agents that induce cytochrome P450 enzymes may also increase individual susceptibility. The range of liver injury includes minor transaminase elevations, acute and chronic hepatitis, steatosis, cholestasis, zonal or diffuse hepatic necrosis, hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, veno-occlusive disease, and acute liver failure requiring transplantation. In addition to the potential for hepatotoxicity, drug-drug interactions between herbal medicines and conventional agents may affect the efficacy and safety of concurrent medical therapy. This review focuses on emerging hepatotoxins and patterns of liver injury, potential risk factors for herbal hepatotoxicity, and herb-drug interactions. Appropriate reporting and regulatory systems to monitor herbal toxicity are required, in conjunction with ongoing scientific evaluation of the potential benefits of phytotherapy.
11. Pharmacognostical & Phytochemical Approach of Jussiaea suffruticosa Linn.
Kumar Anand, Kashyap Pranita
The present study deals with the Pharmacognostical & Phytochemical study of the plant “Jussiaea suffruticosa” for its identification and to distinguish it from the co-existing weeds and adulteration. In the present investigation, microscopical characters are evaluated and different parameters are applied for the physico-chemical studies include evaluation of colour, consistency of different extracts, extractive value, ash value, moisture content, fluorescence analysis and also qualitative phytochemial screening was performed. It was earlier reported as an astringent, carminative, laxative, diuretic and anthelmintic properties. Since there is no proper information regarding this plant, our efforts were devoted to study the pharmacognostical and phytochemical properties of this plant. Thus, present study revealed the plant extract contains different chemical constituents like alkaloid, phenolic compound, saponin, flavonoid, proteins & amino acids.
12. Therapeutic Uses of Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) Extract – A Review
Shawna Rekshmy D’dharan, Prasanna Neelakantan
Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is a fruit native to North America which is rich in nutrients. It is most commonly taken by humans as cranberry juice cocktails. This super-fruit has antioxidant properties, is anti-cancer and used for treatment in urinary tract infections, intestinal infections as well as oral infections. Its main antioxidant and protective action are due to its high polyphenolic and organic acid content. Its low toxicity and high biocompatibility gives it a great advantage and a promising future as a therapeutic agent. This review discussed the uses of cranberry extract.
13. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Whole Plant Extracts of Peperomia pellucida (Linn.)HBK (Piperaceae) and Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. (Marsileaceae)
Gini T. G ., G. Jeya Jothi
A number of medicinal plants have been subjected to detailed chemical investigations and this has led to the isolation of pure bioactive molecules which have been pharmacologically evaluated. As a result, new drugs have been discovered, along with new applications. The present study was aimed at investigating the phytochemical constituents of Peperomia pellucida (P. Pellucida) and Marsilea quadrifolia (M. quadrifolia ) to find out their use as medicinal drugs. The screening for phytoconstituents was performed using standard established methods for qualitative analysis. n-hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol extracts of both the plants were analyzed for the phytochemical compounds. Phytochemical analysis of crude extracts revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, phenols, phytosterols, steroids, terpenoids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, tropane alkaloids, isoquinoline alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, reducing sugars, lipids, and acids in P. pellucida and M. quadrifolia in varying concentrations. Carotenoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, quinones, coumarins, coumarin glycosides, resins, condensed tannins, pseudo tannins, proteins and free Amino acids were found to be absent in P. pellucida and M. quadrifolia. Phlobatannins and fixed oils and fats were present in P.pellucida and absent in M. quadrifolia. The powdered drugs were examined for organoleptic and physical parameters. Sequential extraction was carried out in three different ratios for analyzing the experimental yield of the crude extracts. The yield of the crude extract was found to be higher in 1:8 compared to two other ratios. From this study it is suggested that both P. pellucida and M. quadrifolia have immense medicinal value as a potential drug for the cure of many health related problems as they contain a number of bioactive compounds.
14. Hepatoprotectives: Role of Various Herbs as Hepatoprotectives: A Review
Buchake V V, Talele G S, Talele S G, Jadhav S S, Bachhav R S, Chaudhari G N.
As liver plays an important role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, proteins and many others, subsequently it becomes key organ for human being and animals. Management of liver and liver diseases is challenge to the current modern medicines. In the present review article various herbs and there relative utility in management of liver diseases is discussed. These are the Herbal or Ayurvedic drugs which are not only best known for the hepatoprotective activity in convalescence but also can be used in a proper combination formulation in prophylaxis too. Such drugs are not known with considerable toxicity so no any adverse events are reported.
15. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Extracts from Leaves of Croton polyandrus Spreng
Fernandes HMB, Leão AD, Oliveira-Filho AA, Sousa JP, Oliveira TL, Lima EO, Silva MS , Tavares JF
Aromatic plants have been used in folk medicine as antimicrobial agents since ancient times. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical tests for plant secondary metabolites, tannins, saponins, steroid, alkaloids and flavonoids. The antimicrobial activity of extracts was studied using the microdilution method and determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value. Investigations on the phytochemical screening of Croton polyandrous leaves extracts revealed the presence of saponins, steroids and tannins. The results obtained with Croton polyandrus ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts showed promising antifungal activity against Candida albicans (ATCC 90028) with MIC of 64 µg/mL and 128 µg/mL, respectively.
16. Phytochemical Evaluation of Coleus vettiveroids K.C. Jacob
Beesha S. Kamal, Padmaja V
Coleus vettivereoids K .C. Jacob belonging to the family Labiatae is a widely accepted plant known for its traditional uses such as antipyretic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory etc. Evaluation of its physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical screening and HPTLC studies was done to establish its phytochemical standards. Histochemical studies revealed the distribution of starch, lignins, phenolic substances and alkaloids. Physicochemical parameters such as ash values, extractive values were also evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical screening indicated the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, steroids, alkaloids, flavanoids and tannins in detectable amounts. HPTLC profiles were recorded with the petroleum ether extract. The results generated can be utilized for its identification, authentication and prevention and detection of adulteration of the plant Coleus vettivereoids.
17. Pharmacognostical Standardization and Phytochemical Analysis of Leaves of Dichrostachys cinereaw & Arn
The plant kingdom represents as enormous reservoir of biologically active molecules and sofar only a small fraction of plants with medicinal activity has been assayed. Nearly 50% drugs used in medicine are of plant origin. Dichrostachys cinerea Wt & Arn is commonly known as Vidattalai in Tamil and Vellantarah in Sanskrit. Tender shoots of the plant are bruised and applied to the eyes in case of ophthalmia. Bark to treat dysentry, toothache, elephantiasis, vermifuge, snake–bite, leprosy, syphilis, gonorrhoea, anthelmintic, purgative, laxative and diuretic, arthritis, abortifacients, and also used for pulmonary trouble, pain killer. The standardization of herbal drugs are important parameter in order to ensure authentic material used in the preparation of herbal formulation. In this study, standardization of the plant such as macroscopic, microscopic physio-chemical characters of the leaves of Dichrostachys cinerea has been carried out. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of various extracts of the leaves was also performed. All these pharmacognostical and phytochemical investigation can be used for correct identification of the plant.
18. Preliminary Qualitative, Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis and In vitro Antioxidant Potential of Methanolic Extract of Cuscuta epithymum (L.) L Whole Plant
Seru Ganapaty, Maddi Ramaiah, Kanuri Yasaswini, Vijay Kumar Kuthakki, Dibbanti Harikrishnareddy
Herbal medicines are free from side effects, adverse effects and they are economical and easily available will be beneficial for the mankind over the centuries. Numerous diseases are induced by free radicals via lipid peroxidation, protein peroxidation and DNA damage. It has been known that a variety of plant extracts have antioxidant activities to scavenge free radicals. Cuscuta epithymum (L.) L belongs to the family Convolvulaceae; an important Indian medicinal plant being used in the folk therapy. The aim of this work was to estimate the total phenolic, flavonoid and alkaloid content and to evaluate in vitro antioxidant potential of methanolic extract of C. epithymum by DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging assays. The radical scavenging activity was found to be concentration dependent and increased with increased concentrations and produced maximum scavenging activity at a dose of 360µg. The antioxidant potential could be due to the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, triterpenoids, glycosides, steroids and carbohydrates. Further, this can be confirmed by qualitative-quantitative analysis.
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19. Synthesis and Characterization of 3β-Substituted Amides of 17a-Aza-D-Homo-4-Androsten-17-one as 5α-Reductase Inhibitors, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities
Manav Malhotra, Hemraj Heer, Rajiv Sharma, T.R. Bhardwaj
The study reports the convenient and efficient synthesis of several new analogues of 3β-substituted amides of 17a-aza-D-homo-4-androsten-17-one (3a-3e) from commercially available Diosgenin as the starting material. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectrometry. We herein report the 5α-reductase inhibitory, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of these synthesized analogues in comparison to the reference drugs. The results from these experiments indicate that compound 3β-(2,4-Dinitrobenzamido)-17a-aza-D-homo-4-androsten-17-one (3d) was found to be most promising analogue against 5α-reductase enzyme along with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity while, analogue 3β-(4-Hydroxybenzamido)-17a-aza-D-homo-4-androsten-17-one (3c) found to be least active. The detailed 5α-reductase inhibitory, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the synthesized compounds were reported in this communication.
20. Role of traditional and alternative medicine in treatment of Ulcerative Colitis
Shyam Baboo Prasad, Vidhu Aeri , Yashwant
Currently available treatment options for ulcerative colitis (UC) in modern medicine have several adverse effects. Therefore, there is a need to develop safe and effective treatment modalities for ulcerative colitis (UC). Traditional and alternative medicine play an important role in the management of UC as they were developed from the experience of people which passed from one generation to next since history of civilisation. This article presents a review on some reported traditional and alternative medicine for UC.