International Journal of

Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research

e-ISSN: 0975 4873

p-ISSN: 2961-6069

Peer Review Journal

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1. Pharmacological Effects of the Roots and the Stem Barks Extracts of Erythrina Senegalensis D C.
Nene-Bi S. A., Soro T. Y., Zahoui O. S., Traore F.
Erythrina senegalensis (Fabaceae) is a medicinal plant which is used to cure many diseases. The present study aim was to evaluate the effects of this plant on mammalian heart activity and respiratory. The ethanolic extracts of this plant (ES) were administrated intravenously at doses ranging from 5.15×10-10 g/kg to 3.15×10-3 g/kg b.w. to rabbits that had been anaesthetized before. This extract induced a significant (p<0.001) hypotension in the rabbit at higher doses than 5.72×10-5 g/kg b.w. With the same doses, ES causes a significant increase of the amplitude and respiratory rate in the rabbit. ES at the concentration ranging from 10-8 to 10-4 mg/ml induced a significant (p<0.001) negatives inotropic and chronotropic effects on the isolated heart of rat. In the presence of atropine (10-8 mg/ml), this effects of ES was reduced. These results suggest the presence of cholinomimetic substances.

2. A Novel Approach of the Isolation of L–Dopa from the Methanolic Extract of Mucuna pruriens Seeds and its Quantitative Analysis by HPTLC
Sampath V , Mohamed Faizal K, Mani N , Babu U.V
Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae), also known as cowitch and velvet bean contains very powerful neurotransmitter precursor L-Dopa. The seeds of Mucuna pruriens accumulate 0.2%-2% L-Dopa in their dry weight. L-Dopa is an amino acid that converts into dopamine. Dopamine is an essential component of our body and it requires for the proper functioning of the brain. The seeds powder of Mucuna pruriens has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian Medicine for hypertensive, hypoglycemic agent and Parkinson diseases. The research was focused on a novel approach of the isolation of L-Dopa in semi pure form by chemical fractionation followed by quantitative analysis of L-Dopa by HPTLC.

3. Phytochemical Examination of Corchorus fascicularis Roots
D.Ramadevi, S.Ganapaty
From the root extract of Corchorus fascicularis, β-sitosterol, lupeol, kaempferol, quercetin, oleanolic acid, 2-methylanthraquinone and fusidic acid were isolated and characterized by spectroscopy.

4. Antiobesity Values of Methanolic Extract of Sapindus emariganatus on Monosodium Glutamate Induced Model in Rats
D.Suneetha, S.Divya Teja.Banda, Firasat Ali
Now a day’s Obesity is considered to be a great disorderin many of the individuals in the world. Regulated energy levels are no longer found in the people those who have been suffering with the obesity. There aetiology of obesity is complex. There are lot of factors influence in the development of obesity like dietary, lack of exercise etc. Along with various factors those who have been influencing obesity particularly the consumption of monosodium glutamate, is considered a risk factor for its development. “Sapindus emarginatus”is a medicinal plant which exerts multiple health benefits. Hence present study was undertaken to evaluate anti-obesity effect of methanolic extract of leaves “Sapindus emarginatus”on monosodium glutamate induced obesity in wistar albino rats. Here in the present study of Evaluation of Anti-obesity activity in wistar albino rats by inducing mono sodium glutamate duration of study is 28 days. There are two doses of test drug had been used till the completion of 28 days of study. Monosodium glutamate is used to induce obesity for 7 days along with normal diet andPhysical parameters such as body weight, and various biochemical parameters were estimated after the completion of evaluation.

5. Phytochemical and Antihyperglycemic Studies on Citrus medica L. Leaves
Hetta M.H, El-Alfy T.S, Yassin N.Z, Abdel-Rahman R.F, Kadry E.M
From 70% aqueous methanol extract of the defatted powdered leaves of Citrus medica L. var. Etrog, six compounds, namely,  β-sitosterol-glucoside (1), sakuranetin (2), 7-O-methylaromadendrin (3), dihydrokaempferide (4), hesperitin (5) and rutin (6) were isolated and identified by physicochemical and spectral data (UV, MS and NMR). Compounds 2-4 are newly reported from the genus and 5 is newly reported from the species. The extract was safe up to 2g/kg.bwt. The histopathological changes on liver, kidney and pancreas were assessed. The antioxidant activity was calculated to 102.9µg/ml. The antihyperglycemic activity exerted a significant reduction in blood glucose level to (105.2±8.35) in diabetic rats after one month of treatment with a dose of 200 mg/kg and to (87.4±6.30) with 400mg, when compared to Gliclazide standard (110.8±7.24) (P< 0.05). As a conclusion, the methanol extract of the defatted powdered leaves of Etrog exhibits a significant antihyperglycemic activity which might be attributed to the presence of flavonoid compounds.

6. Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Leaves of Acorus calamus Linn.
Bisht A S, Chauhan M, Dimri A, Joshi A, Ali M
The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the leaf of Acorus calamus Linn.( Araceae family). Acorus calamus a well known medicinal plant in traditional medical systems having various ethanopharmacological uses. Previously leaves of Acorus calamus were not regarded as useful part of plant, but now a day there is growing interest in leaves of the plant. The leaves are considered to possess various activities such as an insect repellent, when cut up and stored with dry foods; antihyperlipidemic; antidiabetic; antipsychotic; antiinflammatory and analgesic. As there is no detailed work reported in leaf, therefore pharmacognostical evaluation including physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical standards were determined .The study revealed specific identities for the plant, which will be useful in identification, as a control to abet adulterants and for future standardization work. Physicochemical studies shows, total moisture content(8.06%), total ash(9.4%), acid insoluble ash(0.65%), hexane soluble extractive values(2.5%), alcohol soluble extractive values(3.5%), and water soluble extractive values(30.5%), total starch content(2.46%), total sugar content(0.80%), total tannins(1.09%),total phenolics(0.41%),total flavonoids(0.2%), total flavonols content(0.4%),total proanthocynadines content(0.65%), total volatile content(2%). Preliminary phytochemical analysis (organic analysis) revealed carbohydrates, glycosides,phenolic compounds, tannins,amino acids, terpinoids and flavonoids are present.TLC analysis shows the presence of  Asarone, β- sitosterol, lupeol and Ursolic acid when matched with marker compounds.

7. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Leaves of Meizotropis pellita Wall. Ex Hook, F & Grew.
Deepak Singh Janoti, Mahesh Kumar
Pharmacognostic evaluation of leaves of Meizotropis pellita (Wall. Ex Hook, F & Grew) family Fabaceae (Papiloneaceae), commonly known as Patwa, was done.  Organoleptic characters, qualitative microscopy, moisture content, physicochemical ash, soluble extractives, and fluorescence analysis was performed. Starch crystals, Trichomes are present in transverse section of midrib of leaves; nature of stomata was Anomocytic (irregular-celled) in the leaves. Ether soluble extractive signifies the presence of least fraction of fats, lipids and some steroids. Total physiological ash and non-physiological ash content was 6.628+ 0.773%. The silica content, especially as siliceous earth in the ash of leaves was found to be 0.708+ 0.30%. Fluorescence analysis of air dried leaves revealed presence of fluorescence compound.

8.Antibacterial Activity of Plant Extracts of Alstonia scholaris
Antony Molly, Misra Chandra Shekhar, Thankamani V
The present study aims to investigate the antibacterial activity of leaves of Alstonia scholaris against bacterial pathogens by disc diffusion method, well method and incorporating the extract in the media before solidifying. The result of disc diffusion technique showed that fractions of leaf extract had pronounced antibacterial activity against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the clinical strain Providence stuartii. Antibacterial activity was also tested against a large group of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and it was found to reside maximum in the butanol and ethyl acetate fractions of methanol extract of leaf and bark.

9. Evaluation of Phytochemical Analysis, Anti Oxidant and Anti-Elastase Activity of Hemigraphis colorata
Asha Gangadharan , Nishath T K , Benny P J
Plants have always played a major role in the treatment of human diseases. Worldwide interest in the use of medicinal plants is increasing nowadays. Hemigraphis colorata belonging to the family Acanthaceae, was used for the treatment of various diseases in traditional system of medicine. In this study phytochemical analysis of Hemigraphis colorata, its anti oxidant effect and anti elastase activity were evaluated. The antioxidant effect of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Hemigraphis colorata was studied by DPPH radical scavenging assay and by reducing power. The primary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, oils, steroids and terpenoids in alcoholic extract and the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds in aqueous extracts. The quantitative phytochemical analysis revealed that the total phenol, flavanoids and flavanols contents were 315, 13.68 and 6.27 mg and 440,7.43 and 6.27 mg respectively for alcoholic and  aqueous extract of Hemigraphis colorata. For both the extracts the antioxidant activity was found to be increased with increasing concentration. The effect of the plant extracts on the Porcine Pancreatic Elastase was also evaluated and showed inhibition on the activity of the enzyme. The percentage inhibition of elastase was found to be 53.31%, 58.80%, 63.23% for aqueous extracts and 39.20%, 44.80%, 50.50% of ethanolic extract with the concentration of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/ml of extract in DMSO The 50% inhibitory concentration was found to be 0.109 and 1.485 mg/ml for aqueous and alcoholic extracts respectively. This result supports the traditional use of Hemigraphis colorata as an effective anti ageing, wound healing, anti-wrinkling and anti cancer agent.

10. An Overview on Medicinally Important Plant – Annona reticulata Linn
Kalyani Pathak, Kamaruz Zaman
Annona reticulata  linn is a highly apparent plant in ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The plant is traditionally used for the treatment of epilepsy, dysentery, cardiac problems, worm infestation, constipation, haemorrhage, antibacterial infection, dysuria, fever, ulcer etc. It also has antifertility, antitumour and abortifacient properties. This plant is reputed to possess varied medicinal properties.Several research workers  investigated the pharmacological activities of different parts of the plant. Present review gives an overview on botanical description,ethnomedical and therapeutic importance  and chemical constituents of Annona reticulata linn

11. Indian Herbal Medicine- A Natural Cure to Asthma
Sharma Vikas, Dhar K. L., Sharma Pooja, Sharma Parul
Asthma is one of the most common chronic respiratory disorders in the world. The adoption of western lifestyles and hasty urbanization has led to the increased prevalence which WHO estimates about 300 million people suffer from asthma and 2, 55,000 people died of asthma in 2011. Current therapeutic regimens used in pharmacotherapy of Asthma are not up to the mark to prevent the progression of various stages of asthma. Plants have always provided a basis for cure of variety of diseases and disorders with advantages like less cost, strength, effectiveness, better tolerance, more safety and less side-effect. Various herbal formulations have been developed that act as anti-asthmatics. The herbal alternatives have proved to be anti-inflammatory, bronchodilators, mast cell stabilizers, anti-allergic, anti-anaphylactic, etc that covers all components involved in the progression asthma.

12. Evaluation of Immunostimulating Activity in Ethanol, Ethyl Acetate, Methanol and Chloroform Extracts of Ocimum sanctum L
Amrutha V Audipudi, P.Ganga Mani, Gireesha S Pagadala, G.Naga Rathna Supriya, R.Pallavi
Immuno stimulating and cytotoxicity activities of Ocimum sanctum are evaluated in different solvent extracts to understand bioactive natures. Chloroform extracts (O-C) of Ocimum sanctum exhibited highest free radical scavenger activity (FRSA) followed by ethanol (O-E), ethyl acetate(O-EA) and methanol(O-M) respectively with IC50 values of 42.39μg/ml,58.45 μg/ml,42.99μg/ml,76.56 μg/ml. O-M  exhibited highest anti inflammatory activity (5-Lox assay) followed by O-EA,O-E and O-C with IC50 values 30.76 μg/ml,16.73 μg/ml,15.99 μg/ml,14.19 μg/ml respectively. Ethanol, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform extracts of Ocimum sanctum also show anti diabetic activities (α- amylase property assay) and anti microbial activity. Cytotoxicity studies or Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) of O-E, O-EA, O-M and O-C exhibited ED50 values 468.40 μg/ml, 116.25 μg/ml, 198.04 μg/ml, 157.24 μg/ml respectively. Based on the cytotoxicity studies, it is evidenced that O-E has highest anti-tumor property, compared to O-EA, O-M and O-C. These results suggest that phytochemicals are specific to a particular solvent and yielded varied IC50 and ED50 values of immunostimulatory activities.  Also show significant anti oxidant, anti inflammatory, anti diabetic, anti microbial and anti tumor activities which could be used as a potential source of pharmaceutical materials.

13. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial screening of the polar and Non-polar solvent Root extracts of Vanda tessellate
P. Jyothi Chaitanya, M.Lalagoud, R.Chandrashekar, N.Lakshmi Bhavani, Karunakar Rao Kudle
The present study deals with the polar and non polar root extracts of Vanda tessellate. In this study polar (Methanol) and non-polar (Chloroform) solvent extracts of Vanda tessellate were investigated for their phytochemical and antimicrobial activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of the Tannins, phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, terpenoids, cyogenic glycosides and steroids. Polar extracts showed more phytochemicals than the non polar extracts. The cyogenic glycosides are found to be present in non polar extracts that are absent in the polar solvent. The microorganisms employed were E.coli, Psuedomonas putida, Staphylococci, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis and certain fungal species such as Aspergillus niger, Fusarium, Colletotrichum, Rhizopus and Mucor.  Among the two aqueous and methanol extracts used methanolic extracts were found to more active towards the organisms tested than the non polar extracts. The analysis revealed maximum activity of polar solvent against bacteria in order of the Klebsiella pneumonia, E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas putida, and Bacillus subtilis. Whereas non polar solvent extracts showed their maximum activity on bacteria in order Pseudomonas putida, E.coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis.   Both Polar and non polar solvents showed broad spectrum inhibition zone against the fungal species Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium, Colletotrichum, Rhizopus and Mucor. Due to the presence of various active phytochemicals present in Vanda tessellate may be attribute the broad spectrum inhibition zone against microorganisms, which may be their individual or combined action. Methanolic extracts of almost all samples dominated aqueous extracts in inhibiting the growth of the pathogenic bacteria and fungi under study, but were less potent when compared to those of Ampicillin and ketocnogole used as positive controls.

14. Total Phenolics from an Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp Isolated from Nothapodytes foetida and its Optimization
Sogra Fathima B, Raj Mohan B
Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) of total phenolic content (TPC) from an endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. was carried out and the conditions for extraction was optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The effects of operating conditions (extraction time, extraction temperature and ratio of solvent to sample) on the extraction of TPC were studied using Central Composite Design (CCD). TPC was determined by Folin’s Ciocalteau method and the results were expressed in (mg GAE/g Biomass). The optimal processing parameters were found to have significant effect on the extraction of TPC from Penicillium sp. A mathematical model with high determination coefficient R2 of 0.947 was obtained with optimal conditions of extraction of 5.88 minutes, 51.87 °C, and ratio of solvent to sample of 18.66:1. Under these conditions the experimental yield of TPC was 59.42 mg GAE/g Biomass which was close to the predicted value of 59.88mg GAE/g Biomass. This study indicated the potential use of MAE for extraction of antioxidants from the biomass of an endophytic fungus.

15. Studies on Costus speciosus Koen Alcoholic Extract for Larvicidal Activity
Surendra Kumar. M, Aswathy. T. N., Suhail. C. N, Astalakshmi. N, Babu. G
Mosquito borne diseases are one of the biggest health problems prevailing in the developing and developed countries also. Larviciding is a successful way of reducing mosquito densities in their breeding places before they emerge into adults. The present study aims at exploring the Costus speciosus Koen alcoholic extracts of leaf, rhizome and stem for larvicidal property. Larvicidal potential of stem, leaf and rhizomes of Costus speciosus alcoholic extracts were evaluated against third and fourth instar larvae (Aedes aegypti). The alcoholic extracts were prepared by maceration technique, and the larvicidal assay was carried out at 5 test concentrations of 100, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 µg/ml.  Larvicidal potential was determined at   0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12 and 24 hours and the percentage mortality was calculated.  All the extracts had shown dose dependent activity with the maximum larvicidal potential was seen at 2000mcg/ml for leaf followed by stem and rhizome. It can be concluded that, larvicidal potential of the leaves are better than that of the other parts such as rhizomes and stem.

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